Wilson and Hessen’s essay has many true and useful ideas, but the first part of their essay seems to argue against the final part. In the natural world, as they correctly point out at the beginning, selection at lower levels of organization generally wins out over selection at higher levels. Very occasionally, groups evolve mechanisms that suppress competition at lower levels and create new levels of organization. The cases are so rare that John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry counted them in 1995 as the dozen or so major transitions in evolution.

Near the beginning, they also point out that humans have proven much better at cooperation than most other kinds of organisms. Some of us argue that the reason humans cooperate so well is due to group selection on the cultural variation between groups. Cultures with strong institutions tend to outcompete ones with weaker institutions. The dark side of this process is culturally different groups often have troubled relationships with one another and cooperation among culturally different people is hard to organize. Humans have proven adept at expanding the scale of their polities to match increases in population density and increases in mobility over the last 11,000 years or so. However, it has been a slow and bitter affair, driven as much by warfare as by gentler mechanisms. For prolonged periods, the most effective military technology has been in the hands of roughneck barbarians, for example Central Asian horse archers or European naval powers, who honed their fighting skills on each other before erupting to cause chaos on the continental and global scale. The industrialized World Wars of the first half of the 20th Century were terrible episodes, and we have improved weapons of mass destruction immensely since then.

Then, at the end of the essay, Wilson and Hessen say that they have sketched a simple solution to scaling up social cooperation from the village to the global scale, using Norway as an example of how to do it. I’m an admirer of the prosperous, effective, egalitarian, and enlightened states the Scandinavians created in the 20th Century, but I don’t think that Norway illustrates a simple solution to creating the global village. After all, Norway has unique features that do not characterize most nations, much less a global village. As Wilson and Hessen note, Norway is a rather small country (about 5 million people). Norway is also a comparatively homogeneous country; 86% of the population is of Norwegian descent. Norway’s relations with the indigenous Sami minority and with its recent immigrants from such countries as Pakistan have not been without their tensions. It ended its Union with Sweden in 1905. It has stayed aloof from what is perhaps the world’s most ambitious attempt to bring the European nation-state under some sort of rational control, the European Union.

The global village would be more than 1,000 times more populous than Norway and perhaps 6,000 times more diverse (using languages as an index of cultural diversity: one strongly dominant language in Norway, about 6,000 in the rest of the world). The trials and tribulations of the EU project illustrate how hard it is to overcome the problems of scale and diversity in building just a sub-continental village. Norway, I’m tempted to say, illustrates how hard it is to make progress toward a global village, not how easy.

Our current policy dilemma is stark. We have a number of global commons issues that require urgent, coordinated global action. Nuclear arms and nuclear proliferation could lead to an unimaginable holocaust, even if only used on a limited scale. Global warming of alarming proportions seems all but inevitable. Impacts of human activities on biodiversity alarm many. Rising inequality might lead to dangerous political developments even in what we generally assume to be stable democracies. Unresolved issues of justice and respect inherited from European colonialism create deep distrust between the West and the Rest. We do not currently have global village institutions or levels of trust anywhere near a level sufficient to deal efficiently with these problems the way Norway can.

Currently, we are acting as if we’re going to let natural selection deal with these problems. Of course, we all know, or should know, that letting nature take her course regarding contemporary global commons problems is quite risky. At the individual level, reckless optimism and an inability to learn from mistakes are traits exaggerated in psychopaths. In the modernworld, they are common in practices of large organizations like nations. Even if you are skeptical about the most extreme scenarios laid out by people who may or may not be mere alarmists, they should give us pause. The future, as always, is highly uncertain. The IPCC’s successive reports on anthropogenic climate change probably represent the best that current science can do in reducing uncertainty about a potentially major global problem. But the IPCC scientists are far from reducing the uncertainty to zero. The climate science community is very worried in part because of the uncertainty. What you can’t predict should be at least as scary as what you can. But policy makers have made essentially no progress. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change has resulted in the IPCC process and annual meetings with global representation, so far with alarmingly modest results in reducing carbon dioxide emissions given the risks that climate change poses. We are behaving collectively as reckless optimists ready to let natural selection decide our case.

We attempt to use science to help make rational collective decisions in order to evade natural selection, to evolve new strategies and policies without suffering the death, destruction, and misery that generally accompanies natural selection. The global village would require something like a Global Village Council to make such decisions. We do have such a council in embryonic form in the United Nations, but it lacks the power and legitimacy to trump the often psychopathic European style nation-state, which remains the dominant type of political actor on the world stage. Still, in the work of the UN on all the major global commons problems, we can see the ghostly outline of how a Global Village Council might operate.

Other kinds of organizations and situations provide models for how a strong global village might be built. Some great cities such as London, New York, Amsterdam, and Los Angeles are fairly large and culturally diverse. Few European style nation-states are pure examples of Wilsonian one people-one polity organizations and some are notably diverse. The Swiss Confederation has four official languages and 26 rather independent Cantons. The Republic of South Africa has 11 official languages. India is the second largest country in the world (1.2 billion people) and its constitution recognizes 21 official languages. It is probably the world’s most culturally diverse polity. None of these organizations is perfect, though the four cities and Switzerland approach Nordic levels of competent governance and prosperity. South Africa seemed destined for carnage until Mandela’s and de Klerk’s peace negotiations resulted in the achievement of a multi-ethnic state by statecraft, not war. India’s progress since independence is palpable despite its size, cultural diversity, and the poor initial state of its economy. Other types of large, diverse, yet functional organizations are worth mentioning, such as multi-national businesses, multi-ethnic religions, and international sports competitions. Some successful large-scale integrating institutions have no overarching organization, such as the world’s diplomatic corps and the international scientific enterprise.

Four principles seem to underlie the success of some large scale, diverse organizations. The first is status based on achievement. Technical and social competence are sources of status that culturally different people can appreciate even though other sources may dominate their lives. Competence of a high order is also required to operate large scale, diverse institutions and organizations. The leadership of international scientific enterprises is almost entirely based on achieved status (which is not to say achieved statuses in science are always or entirely acquired by excellence in scientific work).

The second is tolerance. Individuals differ from one another and people from different cultures sometimes differ rather dramatically. People tend to be strongly wedded to their cultural identities, not to mention their personalities. People belonging to dominant cultures are often surprised when others don’t want to assimilate to their obviously superior culture. This superiority is generally only obvious to the dominant culture. Recall Gandhi’s quip when asked what he thought of Western Civilization: “That would be a good idea!” In a large, diverse organization, you can’t afford to find inevitable individual and cultural differences uncomfortable.

The third principle is respect. You have to tolerate scalawags, incompetents, and culturally limited boors because such people are common in every large organization. But the real work is going to be done by people and groups who respect one another. At the level of contending nations and ethnic groups, it is a myth that distinctive cultural groups always hate one another. In the mid 1970s, Marilyn Brewer and Donald Campbell studied ingroup and outgroup attitudes among 30 East African ethnic groups. The found a great deal variation in both attitudes, including cases where individuals in two groups both had strong average positive ingroup regard but also strong positive evaluations of each other. Journalists, translators, anthropologists, cross-cultural psychologists, ecumenical religious folk, and travelers often get enough insights into other cultures to be able explain them to us in sympathetic terms. Often, getting to know another group well leads to respect. Most people find it especially hard to respect their enemies. Yet, in the long run, struggles end, and the protagonists must make peace. In the meantime, respecting your enemies is liable to make the real or metaphorical fight less brutal and end sooner. Respecting enemies makes it easier to understand them and thus to avoid some fights and win the ones you can’t avoid. The US fought four long, brutal wars after WWII against Communist and Islamicist Third World forces it disrespected. At best, it could only win stalemates in them. Military and political innovations by the insurgents and governments of poor countries in the mid 20th Century allowed them to impose sufficient costs on European powers, even in highly asymmetric contests, to bring the colonial era to an end. The US, the last superpower standing, has been the slowest to learn the lesson.

The fourth is justice. People remember past grievances for generations. In violent conflicts, both sides are often guilty of atrocities. The trials of German and Japanese war criminals after WWII provided a measure of justice to their victims and helped to further the re-integration of these nations into the world community. Efforts in that direction have continued with the establishment of the International Criminal Court. Those guilty of injustice typically build elaborate theories to justify their misbehavior. For example, former US President George Bush famously explained that Al Qaeda attacked the US on 9/11 “because they hate our freedoms.” Bin Laden’s justification for the attack, that Middle Easterners widely detested American policy in the region, seems like a more plausible explanation. Extensive polling in the Middle East certainly points to Bin Laden’s explanation. In recent decades, Truth and Reconciliation restorative justice projects have been conducted in a number of countries that have experienced bitter internal conflicts. Often, these are in situations where the parties responsible for the worst behavior retain considerable political power. They do provide a forum where apologies can be aired and the false theories used to justify atrocious behavior can be de-legitimated.

Thus, I think we know the basic principles we need to build a functional global village. In the century following WWI, many smart, hard-working people have aspired to build it, and their accomplishments are many. It has been hard, slow work and there have been terrible setbacks. Yet by historical standards, their progress is impressive. Our current problem is that new, urgent risks to the collective well-being of the global community emerged in the late 20th Century and older ones still persist. Progress in building global institutions has not kept up with demand. We need to up our game.

Darwin opined in The Descent of Man that progress in civilized times depended upon natural selection only in subordinate degree. Trumping natural selection were such things as a good education, the example of the best people, good institutions, and the force of public opinion. Let us hope it proves to be true.


Brewer, M. B., & Campbell, D. T. (1976). Ethnocentrism and Intergroup Attitudes: East African Evidence. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.

Richerson, P. J., & Boyd, R. (2004). Darwinian evolutionary ethics: Between patriotism and sympathy. In P. Clayton & J. Schloss (Eds.), Evolution and Ethics: Human Morality in Biological and Religious Perspective (pp. 50-77). Grand Rapids MI: Eerdmans.

Published On: September 9, 2014

Peter Richerson

Peter Richerson

Ph.D. (Zoology), University of California, Davis.

Positions: Professor 1983-2006. Distinguished Professor 2005-2009. Associate Director, Institute of Ecology, 1977-80, Director 1983-90. Visiting Fellow Neurosciences Institute, 1984, Center for Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Bielefeld, Germany, 1991. Visiting Professor, University of Exeter, 2004.

Present Position: Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Department of Environmental Science and Policy, U.C. Davis. 2009-present.

Service: Editorial boards of Limnology and Oceanography, Journal of Social and Biological Structures, Human Ecology, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Selection. Currently member of editorial boards of Human Ecology Review, Journal of Bioeconomics, Evolution and Human Behavior, and Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology. President, Society for Human Ecology, 1994-5. Treasurer, Human Behavior and Evolution Society, 1999-2005. Member NAS Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change 1999-2005. President Human Behavior and Evolution Society, 2009-2011.

Honors and Awards: Guggenheim Fellow, 1984; J.I. Staley Prize of The School of American Research (with R. Boyd) for contributions to the human sciences, 1989. Proclamation of Commendation, Lake County CA Board of Supervisors, 2001. Elected Fellow, California Academy of Sciences, 2006. South African Academy of Science Lecturer for 2006. Elected Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2007.

Research Interests: Cultural Evolution, Human Ecology, Applied Limnology, Tropical Limnology. National Science Foundation Grants, 1972-1984. Environmental Protection Agency grants and contracts, 1990-2001. NSF grants to study laboratory models of cultural evolution 2003-2008.


  • This is, like all Pete’s work, an absolutely superb essay. Uncompromising and scary, though. And he leaves out the thing that scares me the most: the steady upward trend of population and the steady downward trend of available farmland and fresh water. China has lost a quarter of its farmland to urbanization and pollution in the last 50 years. We will be dealing with global warming, religious wars, etc. over a backdrop of declining life-support. As to hatred: hate is really bad only when deliberately whipped up by ideologues who often are trying to preserve their power over oil and other resources. The place to start dealing with hatred is by outing such people.

    • Lesley Newson says:

      Gene, Pete left out the “the steady upward trend of population” because it does not exist. Human population growth is slowing and the stability or even decline of the human population is in sight. Given this, I find it interesting that even well-informed people are unaware of it. I wonder if this myth is useful to members of Western culture because it obscures a much greater and steadier upward trend – consumption. Westerners are consuming far more than their share of the Earth’s resources and yet their is no sign of stability or reduction in the resources we consume.

  • Karl Frost says:

    There certainly are a lot of moving parts to engineering a peaceful, sustainable future. It certainly seems far from obvious that simply ‘letting natural selection run its course’ is going to lead us to the promised land, as it were. I suspect that the way the evolutionary thinking can be used constructively for the positive change that we seek is through a detailed study of the genetically inherited idiosyncrasies of human po-social/anti-social responses, materialism, and social learning to ‘engineer’ the institutions that will effectively cultivate sustainable human behavior and which will spread and maintain themselves in the population. The engineering of institutions with an understanding of evolutionary dynamics is, i think, the important part, rather than a faith in the positive outcomes of evolutionary processes.

    You mention the word ‘respect’, and i think there is a good example of the kind of engineering we can do. Scott Atran and collaborators have done an enormous amount of study on the dynamics of sacred conflicts: those conflicts where two groups maintain conflicting values which are amplified through the conflict itself. Atran and colleagues have demonstrated empirically what has been recognized by conflict mediation professionals for years, or even thousands of years by Roy Rappaport’s reckoning, that rituals demonstrating mutual ‘respect’ for each other and each other’s values leads to a deescalation of this positive feedback loop and to the possibility of more altruism and cooperation across group boundaries. This is not a rational process per se, but seems to be a native behavioral mechanism. The trick of the evolutionary behavioral engineer is to help design the institution of respect rituals in times of conflict that propogates itself through societies. We have many of these rituals already in our cultural repetoire, so our job would be to tinker with them to find the idiosyncracies that make them more attractive. Alternatively, also following Atran’s work on conflict and the sacred, we might recognize when destructive feedback loops of sacred conflict are more likely to develop so that we can engineer the obstructions that keep these damaging behaviors from propogating.

    Atran, S. (2010). Talking to the Enemy. New York: Harper Collins.
    Rappaport, R. (1999). Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Excellent essay and certainly good to see some of the more problematic aspects of building a global village being emphasised. I am also unconvinced that Norway could serve as a model for the rest of the world to follow to prosperity but I like the phrase “ghostly outline” for the UN as an early prototype of a global village. Sadly, given our tribal psychological tendencies, I strongly suspect that concerted action on public good issues, such as global warming, will only come at the point when an imminent threat is perceived to ‘our’ country and by that stage I also imagine that we will be discussing damage limitation rather than avoidance.

    It’s a depressing thought but I find the suggestion by Karl Frost above to be a very good illustration of how evolutionary, or even just psychological, knowledge could help address longstanding conflicts. For instance, the article references the reintegration of Japan and Germany into the international community after WWII, following public trials but a notable difference between these two countries is that Germany is now widely perceived in Europe as having fully acknowledged the crimes of the Nazi state, while in East Asia, Japan is widely perceived as being unrepentant and downplaying its responsibility. However,
    when Japan has made symbolic gestures, such as joint wreath laying ceremonies, these have been received very positively. This to me suggests that taking the importance we attach to rituals and other markers of ‘sacred values’ seriously, rather than focusing solely on rational discourse, could help to de-escalate longstanding conflicts.

  • Lee Doran says:

    Hello to all,

    This is a very interesting post. The search for the principles upon which we might base a humane humanity is cogent and central to surviving ourselves, in my opinion.

    It seems to me that much of the groundwork has been laid by the quite astonishing recent advances in social science – many of them not widely recognized or acknowledged or put together, yet.

    For example, Jonathan Haidt’s compilation (The Righteous Mind) of the bases for human moral systems is very convincing to me. If he is correct (or correct enough for jazz) then our principles need to acknowledge and accommodate these six elements:
    1. Care vs harm –> Tend & befriend; Fight or flight
    2. Fairness vs cheating –> Justice (Proportionality); Not
    3. Liberty vs oppression –> Freedom; Tyranny (Violence)
    4. Loyalty vs betrayal –> In-group; Out-group
    5. Authority vs subversion –> Respect (Hierarchy); Not
    6. Sanctity vs degradation –> Avoidance of contamination (Purity); Not

    He suggests these are human universals that apply across all cultures. Seems like a good place to start.

    Next, as another poster here as already pointed out, Scott Atran’s work on sacred values (and reasoning) is critical to understanding and managing (?!) humanity’s violent tendencies. Once we understand – and respect (!) – the fact that sacred values trump everything else for their holders, we can begin to react humanely to other humans whose sacred values are different from our own.

    One of the ‘developed’ (yuk) world’s ‘problems’ at the moment is that its professed and engaged sacred value = money. The demands of capital run the economically integrated parts of the global society/civilization now. Most all in charge agree with this and actively promote its furtherance (in their own personal economic interest, too, of course).

    Much of the rest of the world has very different sacred values, still. And since they are sacred, they are willing to die for them – and do.

    Plus: since sacred values trump economic (cost-benefit) values when they are in conflict (Atran has shown this, too), those who disagree with the CapitalAsGod values fight (literally, physically) fight against them.

    There’s more: when sacred values are compromised by money values (offer or threaten sanctions to cease and desist the fighting in defense of sacred values, e.g.) the scared value holders are not only insulted, they are outraged. They are re-committed, as a result, to their cause which now has the supreme distinction in their eyes of having been violated by the money values that their sacred values hold in disdain and always trump. The whole intent of the money offerers has backfired. They are fuelling (presumably inadvertently?) their opposition.

    There’s still more: Atran and colleagues have also shown that these moral vs economic (cost-benefit) decisions are made in distinct, different regions of the brain. They are different ways of reasoning. And – recall – sacred values always trump economic ones.

    Putting these threads together: we have the core of an understanding of how human violence works – is working – around the planet today.

    How to change that in the direction of a humane humanity?

    Well, in my view, we need to decide on what the values for humanity’s survival are. Are they money? Or are they violence? Or are they something else altogether? So, #1: Values.
    As well, we need to figure out who should make this decision. Should it be the 1% who are now in charge who make decisions on the global disposition of capital on the basis of the interests of themselves and their heirs (side note: 6 Walmart heirs have a combined net worth of $148 billion dollars — more than 49 million American families)?

    Or should the decision-makers be a more inclusive group? Should that group include, for example, women?

    So, #2: who gets a say?

    If we had some emerging majority consensus on these two issues – what are humanity’s survival values and who decides upon them — we would be well on our way to laying the groundwork for surviving ourselves. At that point, we might even consider some kind of limited, case study test of the conclusions to see how they worked out in the real world.

    Instead, we have the 1 % money makers deciding on the basis of their personal desires (more money!) what the world does and makes and sells and buys. Meanwhile, many, many others are feeling:
    a) profoundly offended at the 1%’s values and/or
    b) deeply aware that they are being screwed. For their material prospects have flatlined or deteriorated over the past 40-odd years since the 1%ers started taking back control.
    In summary, the 1%ers are running the show in their own personal, economic interest and everyone and everything else – including the very planet that brought us all – can bugger off.

    For after all, when the piper has to be paid: IBGYBG – that perennial mantra from the boys [sic] on Wall Street who brought us the last (2008-9) Great Recession and are at this moment fomenting the next one (after all, they got rewarded for their role in the last one – why wouldn’t they do it again?)! I’ll Be Gone, You’ll Be Gone. Yup, they’ll be gone to their (gated) mansions hoping against hope that the 99% don’t figure them and it out before their gates are stormed, or preferably, they die peacefully behind them.

    Does anyone hear the crowds gathering (they are muttering things like “Occupy” and “Idle No More”)? Look away, maybe they’ll go somewhere else … no, better yet: get the helicopters ready … wait: where are we flying to, again? …where is our final refuge, again? … hmmmm.

    Thanks to the organizers of and posters on this site for giving us a place to have these discussions.

    Best to all,


    • Karl Frost says:

      funny that you mention $ in the context of the ‘sacred’. In the north of British Columbia, where i have been doing field research, this language is used very explicitly to bolster solidarity and support in the fight against resource extraction industries that are tearing canada’s environment apart. Over and over again in interviews, the idea of the valueless nature of money (‘you can’t eat money’, ‘they are only concerned with money and profits’) is juxtaposed emotionally with sacred connection to land as a source of sustenance, livelihood, spiritual connection and the responsibilities that come with relationships to the sacred. It is mobilizing people pretty radically right now up in Canada.

      • Lee Doran says:

        Yes, Karl. Atran and others have given us very powerful tools for understanding current human behavior(s). The trick will be to use them in the power of ‘good’ rather than ‘evil’ … and presumably the former includes something like human survivance on this planet which is now probably quite explicitly ‘up for grabs.’

        Good luck with your work. I’d be interested in seeing its outcome(s).

        Cheers from here,


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